C++ is a general-purpose programming language. It has a wide range of applications and can be used to create everything from small programs to video games, operating systems, and even large portions of the Internet.In this article, we’ll explore C++ function calls.

What is a function in c++?

A function is a group of statements grouped to perform a specific task. Functions are typically used to break down the logic and organization of more extensive programs, making them easier to read and maintain.

Functions can also be thought of as “mini-programs” that only do one thing. This can make it easier for programmers to debug and test their code because they can isolate the problem by looking at only the function in question.

What is the structure of a function?

A function is a group of statements that are grouped to operate.A function in C++ performs a specific task. It is a group of statements that are grouped to perform an operation.

For example, if you want to add two numbers, you can define a function that does this. The code for this would look something like this:int addNumbers(int x, int y) {return x + y;}

Types of function in C++

  • A C++ function can be without argument and return value.
  • A C++ function can be without argument but have a return value.
  • A C++ function can be with an argument but without a return value.
  • A C++ function can be with an argument and with a return value.

What is a function call?

A function call is typically an instruction to the compiler or interpreter to execute the named function. This may cause the program’s flow of execution to enter one or more of those functions, called “subroutines”, and then return to the point in the program where it was called.

The call may also cause other effects, such as performing input/output operations, producing output in real-time, or displaying messages on a user interface.

C++ function call

How does a C++ function call work?

The stack is a data structure that allows the programmer to store and retrieve information. The stack can be used to store the function call history, and it is also used for temporary data storage.

The call stack stores information about what function calls were made to execute code.Stacks are last-in, first-out principle data structures; to be clear, the last item forced or pushed stack is the first item popped from it.

If you put your programming book at the top of the stack for the rest of your textbooks, you must remove it before removing the other books. This is an exact implementation of a common principle: what comes last comes first.There is also an important term where the stack is used when pushing an element on top of the stack itself. We call these elements the activation log or stack frame.

Stack frame or activation record

The stack frame is a data structure that stores the state of a function call. Stack frame can be thought of as a container that holds information about the function call, including parameters and local variables.

Functions must produce control over the function they are called.A stack activation record is a stack frame that stores the program’s state when it was interrupted.

It is usually created when a function call is made. Every time a function is called, we construct a new activation record and return it. Local variable and function parameters are assigned on the stack when the activation record is validated.


The program holds three functions addFunction1, addFunction1, and main function. The execution of the program is carried out in several layers and stages.

function call

The code of the program

#include <iostream>using namespace std;void addFunction1(int &a, int b, int c) {a*= b + c;}int addFunction1(int m, int n) {int sum {};sum = m + n;addFunction1(sum, m , n);return sum;}int main() {int a {50};int b{100};int c{};c = addFunction1(a,b);cout << c << endl;return 0;}

The output of the program

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